Production of equipment for poultry farms
Comparative efficiency of chiken farming

Comparative efficiency of chiken farming

On efficiency of broiler chiken farming on the floor or in cages

Comparative efficiency of chiken farming


ON EFFICIENCY OF BROILER CHIKEN FARMING ON THE FLOOR OR IN CAGES

V. Fisinin                doctor of agricultural sciences, professor, academician, first vice-president of RussianAcademy of Agrarian Sciences, chief;

A. Kavtarashvili    doctor of agricultural sciences, professor, chief researcher;

V.Lukashenko      doctor of agricultural sciences, professor, manager of the department of the production technology of eggs and fowl.

The long experience of conducting broiler production in Russia and other countries of the world testifies that its further development and competitiveness are possible only at widespread introduction of the resource-saving technologies allowing using the genetic potential of a bird as much as possible. During the broiler farming cage and floor ways are applied.

Still in 80-s in the complex researches conducted by scientists of Russia Research Institute for Poultry Farming (VNITIP) on cultivation of broilers and the maintenance of hens and roosters of meat crosses in cellular batteries the basic possibility of use of this technology was convincingly proved.

During the pre-perestroika period in Russia the 60% of broiler meat was produced in cages, and the rest 40% on a laying. In recent years the situation has changed and this ratio has been leveled that is generally caused by high level of capital investment of cage technology and, respectively, lack of funds for replacement old, morally and physically worn-out cage equipment on new expensive one as well as blind copying of the western technology of broiler farming.

Meat chickens abroad, as a rule, grow up on a deep laying; the cage technology wasn't widely adopted there. The main reasons are chest and foot blisters on birds because of technical imperfections of the equipment, injury of wings and feet in the course of catching and extraction from cages. But the main thing is to change the opinion of the population in favor of the humane attitude towards a bird as a result of large-scale work of various parties and public organizations on environment protection and animals. Their point is the absence of comfort in cages that interferes with manifestation of various behavioral reactions of a bird.

However, it is impossible to disagree with the authors, that consider as the main testimony of dwelling comfort conditions of any animal its good health, high safety, achievement of genetic potential of efficiency. Some researchers specify that during the maintenance of a meat bird in cages it is necessary to speak about adaptation of changes in behavior, instead of talking about lack of the conditions corresponding to its biology.

In the middle of last century when studying the reasons of emergence and character of blisters at broilers E. Hoffman and D. Gwyn (1957) noted that there are lines and the breeds of birds which are very little subject to this defect. I. Trus and V. Albert (1963), who found out that blister susceptibility of birds of certain lines fluctuates from 8 to 30% depending on the rate of feathering, of chickens held the similar opinion. They considered blisters as a result of mechanical irritation of lophosteon upon a cage floor. Later domestic researchers I. Patrik, N. Riza-Zade, M. Makayev (1969) established that blisters appear on slowly feathering broilers at the age of 43-45 days, and they become more expressed at the age of 60-70 days.

To exclude lophosteon blisters and receive a qualitative carcass in the conditions of cage technology, the employees of VNITIP offered to grow up meat chickens no more than 42-49 days at the density of landing of 370-410 cm2, the front of feeding of 3 cm and the fornt of watering of 1 cm per bird.

Without any doubt, it is possible to note that today there are all conditions for widespread introduction of the cage production technology of chicken meat. So, as a result of purposeful large-scale selection which is conducted in breeding farms of the country according to the complex of signs (a high average daily gain of live weight; low expenses of a forage; compact carcass with a broad chest and the truncated chest bone, shorter hips and well-muscled shins; high exit of pectoral and foot muscles with a smaller mass of bones) with congesting blood of the best foreign crosses, the highly productive autosexing domestic crosses of meat hens adapted not only to floor but also to cage technology of farming are created.

Besides, serial release of modern multilevel cage batteries with automatic unloading of a bird for slaughtering is mastered where manual catching and dredging of a bird are excluded from, term of broiler farming is reduced by 35-40 days, optimum technological parameters are determined at the joint and separate maintenance of a bird in cages, the technology of deep processing of the meat is implied, allowing to use for this purpose non-standard carcasses and that the most important, promoting increase of profitability of production to 20-25%.

The cage technology allows poultry farms to increase capacities and to reduce material and financial resources during the production of meat. Good results of work of the leading poultry-farming enterprises of Russia: JSC Reftinskaya Poultry Farm, JSC Agrofirm Oktyabrskaya, "Tbilisskaya Poultry farm of JSC Firm Agrokompleks, JSC Permskaya Poultry Farm, JSC Yaroslavsky broyler, JSC Zelenetskaya Poultry Farm, JSC Krasnaya Polyana, JSC Chebarkulskaya ptitsa and many others testify it.

Researches performed on Lindovskaya poultry farm of the Nizhny Novgorod Region (tab. 1) by a comparative assessment of various systems and the equipment, convincingly proved high efficiency of cage technology of broiler farming. So, at its use in comparison with the floor the live mass of a bird increases by 0.5–5.2%, slaughter yield by 1.2–2.0%, meat yield per 1 sq.m of a poultry house useful area – by 3 times, profit per 1 sq.m of the area of poultry house – by 3.8–4.1 times, profitability of production of meat – for 8.3-10.8% during the decrease in expense of a forage per 1 kg of live weight for 7.3–10.7%, the term of cultivation of a bird – for 2.5 days and prime costs of 1 kg of meat – for 12.5–16.2%. Similar results were received in the researches performed by VNITIP on a bird of "Kobb-500" cross.

 1. The comparative characteristic of cage and floor technology of broiler farming

on Lindovskaya poultry farm of the Nizhny Novgorod Region (Galkin V., 2006)

Indicator

Cage

Floor

Russian 4-level cage equipment

European 4-level cage equipment

Ukrainian 4-level cage equipment

European floor set of the equipment

Initial livestock (poultry house of 18х96 m)

73000

73000

73000

24772

Term of cultivation, days

42

42

42

44.5

Quantity of turnovers of poultry house per 1 year

6.5

6.5

6.5

6.2

Average daily gain of live weight

44.5

46.7

46.7

41.8

The live mass of 1 bird at the end of cultivation

1912

2001

2002

1903

Input of a forage per 1 kg of a gain of live weight, kg

1.76

1.82

1.75

1.96

Safety of a livestock, %

94.2

93.8

94.4

96.3

Slaughter yield of meat, %

74.8

74.0

74.0

72.8

Meat yield per 1 sq.m of the area of a floor of poultry house, kg

65.0

67.0

67.6

21.8

Production prime cost of 1 kg of meat, rub.

23.59

24.65

23.59

28.16

Profit for 1 turnover, thousand rubles.

1826.4

1776.2

1897.4

462.9

Profit in calculation per 1 sq.m of the area of a floor of poultry house, thousand rubles.

1.237

1.203

1.285

0.314

Profit per 1 year, thousand rubles.

11871.6

11545.3

12333.1

2870.0

Profitability, %

44.06

41.55

44.05

33.23

New data (2013) testify high efficiency of cage technology of broiler farming by the results of work of Tbilisskaya poultry farm of Krasnodar Krai (tab. 2) and Kamarovskaya poultry farm of Republic of Belarus (tab. 3).

 2. The results of cultivation of broilers in the JSC TEXHA Production Association cage batteries on Tbilisskaya poultry farm of Krasnodar Krai (2013)

Indicator

Case number (101.7х17.7 m, the area is 1800 sq.m)

Average

Party 1

Party 2

1

3

4

5

6

Total

1

3

4

5

6

Total

Initial livestock

 

71676

67387

73608

73641

70259

356571

74930

73660

74058

74614

73842

s

727675

Cultivation term, days

36.8

36.6

36.7

36.7

37.3

36.8

37

36.7

36.4

38.2

38.8

37.4

37.1

The live mass of 1 bird at the end of cultivation

2406

2377

2344

2283

2363

2354

2301

2380

2353

2287

2268

2317

2335

Average daily gain of live weight

64.2

63.7

62.8

61.1

62.2

62.8

61.2

63.8

63.6

59.0

57.6

61.0

61.9

Handed over on slaughtering:
birds;

70555

65381

71777

71775

68944

348432

73668

71954

72291

73275

72354

363542

711974

live weight;

1697.3

1554.4

1682.4

1638.6

1628.9

8201.6

1695.4

1712.6

1700.8

1675.5

1640.8

8425.1

16626.7

Input of a forage per 1 kg of a gain of live weight, kg

1,66

1,68

1,67

1,68

1,66

1,67

1,69

1,68

1,66

1,67

1,68

1,68

1,67

Safety of a livestock, %

98.4

97.02

97.5

97.5

98.1

97.7

98.3

97.7

97.6

98.2

98.0

98.0

97.9

Slaughter yield of meat, %

76,3

76,3

76,2

76,2

76,3

76,3

76,4

76,3

76,2

76,4

76,4

76,4

76,4

Meat yield per 1 sq.m of the area of a floor of poultry house per 1 turnover, kg

94,3

86,4

93,5

91,0

90,5

91,1

94,2

95,1

94,5

93,1

91,2

93,6

92,4

Meat yield per 1 sq.m of the area of a floor of poultry house per 1 year (7 turnovers), kg

660

605

655

637

634

638

659

666

662

652

638

655

647

European efficiency index

387

374

374

360

374

374

360,8

378,2

378,9

352,3

339,9

362

368

 So, on Tbilisskaya poultry farm in 5 poultry houses with the cage equipment with automatic unloading of a bird of JSC TEXHA Production Association for two turnovers 727.7 thousand broilers were grown up. On the average, the term of cultivation of broilers was 37.1 days, live mass of 1 bird was 2335 g, an average daily gain of live weight was 61.9 g, safety of a livestock – 97.9%, forage conversion was 1.67 kg, slaughter yield of meat was 76.4%, meat input (in live weight) per 1 sq.m of the area of a floor of poultry house for 1 turnover was 92.4 kg and for 1 year (7 turnovers) was 647 kg, an efficiency index was 368.

 

3. The comparative characteristic of cage and floor technology of broiler farming on Kamarovskaya poultry farm of Republic of Belarus 

Indicator

Cage technology

Floor technology

Cage equipment with automatic unloading of a bird of JSC TEXHA Production Association

Poultry house 1

Poultry house 2

Livestock in a poultry house of 18х96 m

55400

25000

25000

Floor area per 1 bird, cm2

480

555

555

Farming term, days

39,5

42,5

42,5

Quantity of turnovers per 1 year

6,82

6,46

6,46

Average daily gain, g

60,4

54,8

50,1

Live weight at the end of farming, g

2424

2369

2170

Input of a forage per 1 kg of the gain of live weight, kg

1,78

2,07

1,98

Safety, %

97,4

97,1

97,0

 The comparative data obtained on Kamarovskaya poultry farm of Republic of Belarus showed that during the cage technology the live weight of 2424 was reached in 39.5 days against 2170-2369 in 42.5 days of cultivation of broilers on a floor. The average daily gain of live weight, conversion of a forage and quantity of turns of poultry house per year made 60.4 g; 1.78 kg; 6.82 and 50.1-54.8; 1.98-2.07 kg, 6.46 at cage and floor technology of broiler farming respectively.

The recent researches performed by us on Staratel poultry farm of Yaroslavl region according to the quality of meat of broilers of "Ross 308" cross grown-up in cage batteries with automatic unloading of a bird showed that 39-day-old broilers had the live weight of 2380, an average daily gain of live weight was 60 g, costs of a forage of 1 kg of a gain of live weight was 1.65 kg, safety of a livestock was 98%. During the slaughtering of a bird that blisters and mechanical injuries on a bird are practically absent and the quantity of non-standard carcasses made only 1.5%. Broilers possessed high meat qualities. The yield of edible parts, chest fillet and all muscles at cockerels and chickens made 81.8; 28.2; 69.5 and 80.6; 26.0; 67.6%, respectively from the mass of a gutted carcass. The content of fat in pectoral muscles of broilers was in limits of 1.58-2.25%, in foot muscles, 3.99-4,69%. The sum of replaceable and irreplaceable amino acids in pectoral muscles of cockerels and chickens made 21.037 and 21.366 g per 100 g of edible part of a product, and in feet 18.372 and 19.169 g respectively. The level of irreplaceable amino acids in meat of broilers was in limits of 6.852-8.042. The juiciness of meat was rather high and ranged within 60.55-62.08%. Meat of broilers had a gentle consistence, at the level of 3.82-4.04 mm. Flavor properties of the broth prepared from meat of chickens and cockerels, were estimated on 4.90-4.95 and 4.80-4.85 points, respectively.

Today in meat poultry farming the wide experience of application of cage technology is accumulated not only at cultivation of broilers, but also at the maintenance of an adult meat bird. For many years, this technology on breed livestock farm "Rus" of Krasnodar Krai, successfully practices in JSC Agroholding YURMA of the ChuvashRepublic, JSC Vozrozhdeniye-1 and JSC Pokrovskaya Poultry Farm of Saratov region. In JSC Assortiment situated near Moscow the Veranda system of Vencomatic firm for the maintenance of hens and roosters of parental flock of broilers in four-level cage batteries is introduced.

The advantage of cage technology of broiler farming is also the fact that now one of the most economical and fastest ways of increasing the production of fowl is to increase the capacities of the operating broiler enterprises without expansion of floor spaces, by introduction of modern technology, modernization and replacement of the outdated equipment and performing other actions.

For example, in JSC Reftinskaya Poultry Farm of Sverdlovsk region the reconstruction of poultry houses during which four-level cage batteries replaced three-leveled one, allowed to increase fowl outputs by 30-35%. Calculations showed that at the completion of reconstruction of broiler shops the factory power without additional construction will increase on 10 thousand tons per year.

It should be noted that at a comparative assessment of efficiency of cage and floor technologies the cost of buildings, external and internal engineering communications, etc. is often not considered. Calculations show that costs of these purposes are three times higher during floor maintenance and in the sum with equipment cost considerably exceed the cost of cage technology per 1 thousand seats.

It is necessary to proceed from the fact that the main task in the organization of technological process of cultivation of broilers consists in receiving the maximum yield of products from a poultry house unit of area at the minimum expenses of work and costs. It is obvious that the wrong decision and the financial miscalculation in the conditions of the accruing competition can lead to big economic losses.

Being engaged today in production of meat of the broilers, each farm has to optimize not only economic indicators, but also technological parameters taking into account the biological features of a growing bird caused by sexual dimorphism. It is necessary to find the correct combination of such indicators, as cultivation term, the final live weight, density of landing and a meat yield from room unit of area for broilers of a certain cross.

The separate cultivation from daily age of chickens and cockerels is caused, first of all, by different intensity of growth and development of muscular tissue and the internals. Secondly, by the specificity of their requirement for nutrients; thirdly, by features of behavior of a heterosexual bird that influences level of its concern; fourthly, that is very important, by the age of achievement of high meat qualities of chickens and cockerels aren’t identical.

The Yelizarov E. and Manukyan V. experiments (2006) on separate cultivation of cockerels and chickens of new trilinear cross "AK 839" showed that the average live mass of flock was higher than 4.9%, safety 0.6%, white meat yield 5.3%, carcasses yield of the first category 2.5% at decrease in expenses of a forage per 1 kg of a gain of live weight for 4.8% in comparison with the joint contents. Separate cultivation promoted increase of live mass of cockerels for 2.7% and chickens 7.3%, safeties and uniformity of chickens for 1.8% and 7% respectively, the yield of carcasses of the first category – for 4%.

And this processing method is especially perspective during the cage maintenance of broilers.

Thus, it is possible to note that the cage technology of cultivation of broilers is an essential reserve of fast and significant increase in production of meat. The advantage of this technology in comparison with the floor one consists in the maximum use of floor spaces, high level of mechanization and automation of productions, reduction of expenses for engineering communications, heating and illumination of the premises, improvement of sanitary and veterinary conditions, increase in an exit of meat from unit of area by 2.5-3 times. Laying isn't required during cage farming; the best supervision over a bird is provided; chickens don't contact to waste and less often catch parasites, first of all coccidia. Broilers grow in cages better, consume forages per gain unit less, and reach slaughtering standards in earlier terms. Besides, labor of workers is facilitated, and labor costs are reduced by service and sending a bird for slaughter.



Broilers Growing

Broilers Growing
Growing Broilers

Broilers Growing
Layers Housing

Broilers Growing
Pullets

Broilers Growing
Breeders Housing

Broilers Growing
Alternative system