Production of equipment for poultry farms
Broiler meat production in the world

Broiler meat production in the world

Broiler meat production in the world: volumes, technologies, current state and prospect

Broiler meat production in the world


M.I.Sakhatskiy, Ph.D., professor, academician of Ukrainian NAAS.

Elnara Abdullaieva, postgraduate.

The dynamics of production and consumption of poultry volumes in countries with developed poultry farming was investigated, the most powerful exporters and importers of broiler meat were identified, high probability of geographical shifts in poultry farming industry and certain changes in external trade were foreseen.

It is common knowledge, that world population has grown by 80 million in 2013 and as of January 1, 2014 has reached 7.2 billion people. It increases annually by about 1.3%. Therefore, food production should increase to at least the same pace. First of all it concerns animal protein. If its production would grow less rapidly, then nearly 1 billion people, who currently have problems with full meals or are starving, would increase each year by millions of new. However, to meet the increasing demand for animal protein is a real challenge even for broiler industry. Its performance on the traditional strategy is associated with new farms construction and leads to decreasing the total area of agricultural land, including arable land, the need for which is growing due to the necessity of a substantial increase in the production of forage, grain – the main component of animal feed. In addition, reserve land resources, suitable for construction of new farms or increasing of arable land area, in the countries of North America and Europe (where it is focused almost 45% of world poultry production) have already been exhausted. Therefore further researchers’ efforts should be directed to the development and implementation of new technological solutions able to ensure a significant increase in broiler meat production per unit area of existing capacities, as well as to identify regions of the world, promising to produce the product according to the modern industrial technologies.

According to the UN FAO and the Ministry of Agriculture of the United States information, the sustainable growth of poultry meat production volumes, including broiler meat takes place all over the world for many years. The leader in the production of this product, as is evidenced by the data in table 1, is America’s North, Central and South parts together. The specific share of USA in the global production of poultry in 2013 was 43.6%. In comparison with 2012,  chicken and broiler meat production on this continent has increased by 0.9 million. tons, that has provided its leadership by growth rates. The second place by the volume of chicken meat production (including broiler meat) during the investigated period, belongs to Asia. In 2013, this continent has produced 31.6 million tons of chicken meat that was 33.5% of its global volume. In specified rating, Europe during 2000-2014 has the third place, Africa is fourth, Oceania is fifth. 

 

Table 1.  Production of chicken and poultry meat in 2000-2014, million tons

Continent

2000

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

(Forecasting)

+/-2013 against 2012

Growth, % (2013 against 2012)

Proportion share in 2013, %

Africa

America

Asia

Europe

Oceania

In the world:

chicken meat, including broiler meat

2.8

27.1

18.6

9.3

0.7

 

58.5

-

3.3

32.7

22.4

10.9

0.9

 

70.2

-

3.4

33.7

23.5

10.8

1.0

 

72.3

-

3.7

35.0

25.0

11.6

1.0

 

76.2

-

4.0

37.4

26.2

12.1

1.0

 

80.6

72.8

4.2

36.7

28.0

13.3

1.0

 

83.3

73.8

4.5

38.6

29.1

13.9

1.1

 

87.2

78.3

4.6

39.9

29.8

14.6

1.2

 

90.0

81.3

4.7

40.2

31.1

15.2

1.3

 

92.5

83.2

4.8

41.1

31.6

15.4

1.3

 

94.2

86.4

4.9

42.2

32.4

15.5

1.4

 

96.4

87.0

0.1

0.9

0.5

0.2

-

 

1.7

3.2

2.1

2.2

1.6

1.3

-

 

1.8

3.8

5.1

43.6

33.5

16.3

1.5

 

100

-

 

Specified rating of the regions of the world (by volumes of chicken meat production in 2013) is demonstrated more clearly in Figure 1. Herewith it is still about general chicken meat production volumes on the continents of the world excluding the population. However, when determining the volumes of production and consumption of chicken meat in recalculation per one ordinary resident of each continent, their rating is significantly changed. For example, in 2009 for one average resident of America (920 million) it was produced up to 39.9 kg of chicken meat, Asia (4117 million) – 6.8 kg, Europe (738 million) – 16.4 kg, Africa (999 million) – 4.2 kg, Oceania (36 million) – 27.8 kg. Therefore, in the rating by the volume of chicken meat produced for average residents in 2009, the first place belongs to America (39.9 kg), the second – Oceania (27.6 kg), the third – Europe (16.4 kg), the fourth – Asia (6.8 kg) and the fifth – Africa (4,2 kg). Regarding total volumes, then, as is evidenced by the data in table 1, the proportion share of broiler meat is 87.4-90.3% of the produced chicken meat. World broiler meat production in 2013 was 86.4 million tons. In comparison with 2008 it increased by 13.6 million tons, or by 18.7 %. The pace of this growth is graphically shown in Figure 2. In 2009, broiler meat production increased by 1.0 million tons (by 1.4%) against the previous year (2008), in 2010 - by more than 4.5 million tons (by 6.1%) against the previous year (2009). In 2011, broiler meat was produced more by 3.0 million. tons (3.8%), in 2012 – 1.9 million tons (2.3%), in 2013 – 3.2 million tons (3.8%) compared to previous years (2010, 2011 and 2012, respectively). Therefore, the annual variation of broiler meat production growth in the world was within 1.4-6.1 %. This growth was provided by increased number of enterprises of growing chickens for meat. But in 2014, the rate of broiler meat production growth is expected to be slower. In particular, it is forecasted (table 1) that it would be produced more than in 2013 just by 0.6 million tons, or by 0.7 %. Whether it is the usual cautious forecast or the signal of the exhaustion of the reserve lands for the construction of new production capacities? In any case, in our opinion, the question of more efficient technologies introduction of growing chickens for increasing broiler meat production volumes for 1 sq. m of the poultry house, reducing costs (feed, energy, labor resources, etc.) per obtained production unit and its recycling, becomes actual year by year.

Table 2 summarizes the data from the production and consumption of chicken meat in major leading countries. The absolute leader is, as can be seen from the following data, the United States, where 17.0 million tons of broiler meat was produced in 2013, or 19.7 % of its global volume. From 2009 to 2013, production of this product in the United States has increased by 1.1 million tons, i.e. the average annual growth was 275 thousand tons. Second place in this rating takes China (13.5 million tons in 2013), and Brazil is the third (12,8 million tons). Together, these three countries in 2013 have produced 43.3 million tons of broiler meat, or the half (50.1%) of its global volume. Volumes of broiler meat consumption has also increased during the investigated period in almost all countries listed in Table 2. In particular, its consumption in the United States has increased from 12.9 million tons in 2009 to 13.7 million tons in 2013, i.e. by 800 thousand tons (6.2%). In China for the same period broiler meat consumption has increased by 1.1 million tons (9.0%), in Brazil - 600 thousand tons or 6.9 %.

The data on volumes of production and consumption of broiler meat in specified leading countries (United States, China, Brazil) is perceived somewhat differently in case of its recalculation per one average resident (Table 3). If in 2009 and 2013 the first place in the world for general production volume (15.9 and 17.0 million tons) and broiler meat consumption (12.9 and 13.7 million tons) belonged to the United States, then after the recalculation of these volumes for one average resident it is clearly seen (table 3) that the first place actually belongs to Brazil. This country is the absolute leader, where broiler meat is manufactured (in 2009 – 57,3 kg, in 2013 – 63,1 kg) and consumed (in 2009 – 45.3 kg, in 2013 – 45.8 kg) for one average resident more than in the United States. If China takes by the total broiler meat production the second place in the world, when it is recalculated for the average resident still produces small volumes of broiler meat, namely: 9.1 kg in 2009 and 9.9 kg – in 2013. For comparison, it should be noted that in Ukraine. in 2013 for the average resident it was produced 26,9 kg of broiler meat. It should be noted that information concerning the total production and consumption of broiler meat in each country is also very important, especially when determining its export/import potential.

 

2. Production and consumption of poultry meat in some countries of the world (million tons, the slaughter mass)

Country of

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

(Forecasting)

+/-2013 against 2012

Growth, % (2013 against 2012)

Production

USA

China

Brazil

Eu Count

India

Russia

Mexico

Argentina

Turkey

Thailand

Indonesia

Other count

Total

15,9

12,1

11,0

8,8

2,6

2,1

2,8

1,5

1,2

1,2

1,4

13,2

73,8

16,6

12,6

12,3

9,2

2,7

2,3

2,8

1,7

1,4

1,3

1,5

13,9

78,3

16,7

13,2

12,9

9,3

2,9

2,6

2,9

1,8

1,6

1,4

1,5

14,5

81,3

16,6

13,7

12,6

9,6

3,2

2,8

3,0

2,0

1,7

1,6

1,5

14,9

83,2

17,0

13,5

12,8

9,8

3,4

3,1

3,0

2,0

1,8

1,5

1,6

16,9

86,4

17,5

13,7

13,0

9,9

3,6

3,3

3,0

2,1

1,8

1,6

1,6

15,9

87,0

0,4

-0,2

0,2

0,2

0,2

0,3

-

-

0,1

-0,1

0,1

0,5

3,2

2,4

-1,5

1,6

2,1

6,3

10,7

-

-

5,9

-6,2

6,7

3,4

3,8

Consumption

USA

China

Brazil

Eu Count

India

Russia

Mexico

Argentina

Turkey

Thailand

Indonesia

Other count

Total

12.9

12.2

8.7

7.8

3.0

3.3

2.5

2.0

1.4

1.3

1.4

16.3

72.8

13.5

12.5

9.0

9.0

3.0

3.4

2.6

2.1

1.5

1.5

1.5

17.6

77.2

13.7

13.0

9.0

9.4

3.0

3.5

2.9

2.1

1.7

1.6

1.5

18.7

80.1

13.3

13.5

9.2

9.1

3.3

3.6

3.2

2.2

1.8

1.7

1.5

19.3

81.7

13.7

13.3

9.3

9.2

3.5

3.7

3.4

2.2

1.8

1.7

1.6

19.6

83.0

14.1

13.6

9.5

9.4

3.8

3.7

3.6

2.2

1.8

1.7

1.6

20.1

85.1

0.4

0.2

0.1

0.1

0.2

0.1

0.2

-

-

-

0.1

0.5

1.3

3.0

-4.5

1.1

1.1

6.1

2.8

6.3

-

-

-

6.7

2.6

1.6

  

3. Production and consumption dynamics of broiler meat in leading countries.

 

Country

Population, mln.

Meat produced

Meat consumed

Total, mln. t.

For one resident, kg

Total, mln. t.

For one resident, kg

2009

United States

China

Brazil

307

1331

192

15.9

12.1

11.0

51.8

9.1

57.3

12.9

12.2

8.7

42.0

9.2

45.3

2013

United States

China

Brazil

316

1368

203

17.0

13.5

12.8

53.8

9.9

63.1

13.7

13.3

9.3

43.4

9.7

45.8

 

The largest exporters of broiler meat in the world are Brazil and United States. In particular, these two countries in 2013 have supplied into foreign market 6934 thousand tons of broiler meat that amounted 68.7 % of its world exports, and in 2014 it is expected to be no less than 65.5 %. By the way, eleven leading in export of broiler meat countries in 2013 have implemented 10133 thousand tons of it (97.5 % of total exports) and the rest of the world – 260 thousand tons (2.5 %). Our country takes the eighth place in these leading countries rating, being ahead of Canada, Lithuania and Chile. For the last 5 years Ukraine has increased its export of broiler meat from 18 thousand tons (2009) to 120 thousand tons (2013), or by 566,7 %. It is foreseen that in 2014 the amount of this export would still greatly increase up to 170 thousand tons. 

Japan is the leader of broiler meat imports during the investigated period. For 5 years of investigated period (2009-2013) this country has increasedits import volume by 215 thousand tons, or by 33.3 %. In general, the world import volume of broiler meat has increased by 18.5 % and amounted in 2013 - 8706 thousand tons.

 

4. The volumes of broiler meat exports and imports in 2009-2014.

Country

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014 (forecasting)

+/-2013 against 2009.

Growth, % (2013 against 2009)

Exports (thousand tons)

Brazil

United States

ES

Thailand

Turkey

China

Argentina

UKRAINE

Canada

Belarus

Chile

Other total

Total

3222

3093

765

379

86

291

178

18

147

21

87

146

8433

3272

3067

934

432

110

379

214

32

147

38

79

173

8877

3443

3161

1044

467

206

423

224

43

143

74

90

219

9537

3508

3300

1094

538

285

411

291

76

140

105

93

242

10083

3580

3354

1095

540

365

415

323

120

150

100

91

260

10393

3625

3425

1105

580

440

415

355

170

155

115

91

289

10765

358

261

330

161

279

124

145

102

3

79

4

114

1960

11.1

8.4

43.1

42.5

324.4

42.6

81.5

566.7

2.0

376.2

4.6

78.1

23.2

Imports (thousand tons)

Japan

Saudi Arabia

Iraq

Mexico

EU

Russia

Angola

RSA

Venezuela

China

United States

Other total

Total

645

 

605

397

492

726

929

161

206

181

401

45

2561

7349

789

 

681

522

549

687

656

239

240

237

286

48

2911

7845

895

 

788

598

578

734

463

287

325

234

238

49

3100

8289

877

 

799

612

616

729

560

301

371

198

254

51

3261

8629

860

 

810

655

675

670

540

340

355

300

260

52

3189

8706

855

 

825

700

690

670

530

375

340

300

270

51

3251

8857

215

 

205

258

183

-56

-389

179

149

119

-141

7

628

1357

33.3

 

33.9

65.0

37.2

92.3

58.1

111.2

72.3

65.7

64.8

15.6

24.5

18.5

 

Leadership by the growth rate of broiler meat imports, as is evidenced by Table 4 data, belongs to Angola (111.2 %) and the South African Republic (72.3 %). EU countries, Russia and China, by contrast, have reduced their imports during this time. For example, Russia being a world imports leader in 2009 (929 thousand tons), in 2013 has moved to sixth place (540 thousand tons) in the rating, losing to Japan, Saudi Arabia, Mexico, European Union and Iraq. This is due to the construction and introduction new poultry farms, poultry complexes and other facilities in Russia for the production of broiler meat with the traditional floor and cell technology of growing chickens. The application of cell technologies allows to increase in 2-3 times broiler meat production from 1 sq. m of poultry house floor area, against floor technologies.

Therefore, for the investigated period the population of the Earth has risen from 6.1 (2000) to 7.2 billion (2013) people, or by 18.0 %. Production of chicken meat during this time has increased by 61,0%, in particular from 58.5 million tons (2000) to 94.2 million tons (2013). When recalculating for one average resident of our planet, in 2000 it was produced 9.5 kg of chicken meat, and in 2013 – 13.1 kg, including 12.0 kg of broiler meat. It testifies the growth of chicken meat production (including broiler meat) with higher rates than the growth of Earth’s population. Under UN FAO forecastings, the total volume of poultry meat production in the world in 2022 would reach 129 million tons, 114 million tons of which would be the chicken meat (including 103 million tons of broiler meat) and the rest (15 million tons) – ducks, geese and turkeys. The population of our planet in 2022 can exceed 7.6 billion. On this basis, for each inhabitant of the planet in 2022 it would be produced 15.0 kg of chicken meat, including 13.5 kg of broiler meat. Therefore, in 8 years (from 2013 to 2022), the expected production volumes would increase by 21.0 % (or 2.6% average per year), including broiler meat - by 19.2 % (2.4% annualy). The population of the planet would grow on average by 2.0 % per year. Thereby, the production of chicken meat, including broiler meat up to 2022 would grow faster than the population. But, this advance could continue only until the completion of reserve land resources, suitable for growing food grains, vegetables, fruits, forage, as well as construction of new capacities for production of chicken meat in particular. Given the fact that the specified land resources reserve in the countries of North America and Europe (where it is focused now almost 45% of world production of poultry products) is already exhausted, then, in the case of traditional technologies of growing chickens for meat using the further significant growth of chicken meat production volumes is possible only in South America, South Asia and Africa. In North America and Europe, the continued growth this product production volumes is possible only in the case new industrial technologies implementation that provide increased in 2-3 times output of chicken meat from unit area of the poultry house.

Chicken meat production world volumes for the investigated period (2000-2014) are increasing much faster than the population of the Earth is growing. The proportion share of broiler meat is 87.4-90.3 % of the produced chicken meat.

America is the leader in production of chicken meat, in 2013 it has provided 43.6 % of chicken meat global volume. Among the countries of the world the leaders in producing and exporting chicken meat are the United States and Brazil, and the biggest importers are Japan, Saudi Arabia, Mexico, EU and Iraq. Further growth of broiler meat production volumes in the world would be connected with the appropriate capacities build-up in countries of South America, South Asia and Africa. Substantial increase of chicken meat production volumes in specified regions can lead to a geographic shift in the poultry farming industry, as well as to the certain changes in external trade. In particular, the export of United States and EU countries would increase the proportion share of deeply processed poultry products. US leadership in broiler meat production and export is possible in case of new industrial technologies of chickens growing implementation, that provide increased in 2-3 times output of chicken meat from unit area of the poultry house. This applies also to EU countries, which have already exhausted reserve of land resources suitable for the construction of new facilities for chickens growing for meat with the classic floor technology. Condition and prospects research of the further development of broiler industry in Ukraine is the main objective of our further experiments. 



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